The LAIA instrument is the optical imager of TJO, available from December 2018. It consists in two components: the CCD camera and the filter wheel. Please, read the full information provided here when preparing observations for the TJO.

CCD camera

The CCD camera is an iKon XL, with a back-illuminated 4k×4k chip manufactured by Andor:

  • Model: CCD230-84
  • Sensor Manufacturer: e2v
  • Sensor Type: Back Illuminated
  • Coating: BV
  • Number of pixels: 4096 x 4096
  • Pixel Size: 15 x 15μm (0.4 x 0.4 arcsec at the TJO)
  • Field of view at TJO without vignetting: 30 arcmin
  • Sensor size: 61.4 x 61.4mm
  • Quantum Efficiency: >90% from 500 to 650nm; >50% in all the range from 400 to 850nm
  • Typical Working Temperature: -50º C
  • Typical Dark Current: <0.01 e-/pixel/sec. @ -50º C
  • Typical Read-out Noise: <9 e- RMS a 1 MHz
  • Read-out channels: 4
  • Non linearity: <1%
  • Read-out time: 8 seconds

Filter wheel

The filter wheel is physically coupled to the telescope at the back of the primary mirror support. It can hold up to 12 3-inch filters that are placed at the optical axis of the telescope by rotating the filter wheel. Currently, 5 Johnson-Cousins photometric filters (manufactured by Custom Scientific) are installed: U, B, V, Rc, and Ic.


LAIA is designed to cover the entire TJO focal plane. With its 4096 x 4096 pixels, LAIA would be able to cover a field of view of 27.3 x 27.3 arc minutes. The TJO focal plane, however, covers a circular field of view of 30 arc minutes. The different shape of LAIA detector with respect to the TJO field of view causes that the corners of LAIA images are vignetted. In addition, ARES pick-off mirror can also be seen in the LAIA field of view, causing an additional source of vignetting. Therefore, LAIA images tend to be similar to the following image:

Standard calibration procedure

Anchor here is required

The TJO control system is designed to periodically run the acquisition of calibration images, including bias, darks and sky flat-fields:

  • Bias. Bias frames are usually taken in multiples of 5 before the beginning and after the end of the night. Usually, a minimum number of ten bias frames are provided to the observers.
  • Dark. Dark current frames are usually taken just before or after the acquisition of bias frames. The exposure time for the dark frames depends on the exposure time of science images. Usually, the exposure time for the dark frames, corresponds to the maximum exposure time for the science frames.
  • Sky flat-fields. Sky flats are routinely taken by pointing to several blank fields during twilight. When sky conditions do not allow the acquisition of sky flat exposures, images taken previously can also be provided to the observers. Flat-field images are routinely obtained with an illumination that provides a homogeneity better than 1% RMS.

All the calibration images are provided to those observers having science sequences with LAIA during the night.

Generalitat de CatalunyaUniversitat de BarcelonaUniversitat Autònoma de BarcelonaUniversitat Politècnica de CatalunyaConsejo Superior de Investigaciones CientíficasCentres de Recerca de Catalunya